A Brief Survey
Lanzhou, named Jincheng (Gold City) in ancient times, aas a history of more than two thousand years. It is now the capital of Gansu province. Greater Lanzhou has a total area of about 14, 000 square kilometers and includes three coun-ties and five districts under its jurisdiction with a population of 2.43 million. Lanzhou proper has about 220 square kilo-meters and a population of about 0. 6 millon. There are more than 30 ethnic groups in Lanzhou. The city stretches along Lhe Yellow River as it snakes its way through the valley. Lanzhou is located on the loess plateau with an average ,elevation of 1520 meters. Its weather is comparatively good. Winters are not severe, nor is it extremely hot in summer. when most cities suffer from the intense heat of summer, the average temperature in the hottest month of Lanzhou is only 22.6'C.
In summer and autumn, the city is full of melons and
fruit: the air is heavy with the aroma of flowers. That is the

best time to visit.
Tourist Attractions in the City Proper White Pagoda Park (Baita Shan)
Although not very high, the position of the park is very important to the city. It lies on a hill on the northern bank of the Yellow River. It is connected to Xiguanshizi (Western crossroads), the busiest traffic intersection in Lanzhou, by the Zhong Shan Bridge, made of steel and constructed during the last days of the Qing Dynasty (1910). Its location makes White Pagoda Park an excellent vantage point for a bird's-eye view of the city in the daytime. Across the river can clearly be seen the bustling activities and the multicolored buildings of the city. Binghe (Riverside) Avenue with its green willows and many flowers, adds beauty and charm to the magnificent downtown area.
The Yellow River flows swiftly through the city; on the torrent , a newly-made tourist ferry braves the wind and wa-ter. In this delightful scene, the mountain, the i'iver, the trees, the buildings and the bridge add radiance and beauty to each other and all are in their majesty ~ Viewing such loveliness is a pleasure for all.


At the top of the park stands the White Pagoda, built in the Yuan Dynasty and restored in the Ming Dynasty. It is
snowwhite with a round foundaton. Seventeen meters high, it has seven floors and eight sides on which are many large

and small,figures of Buddha. On the roof corners, hang cop-per bells chiming in the breeze. Tile sound is both solemn and mysterious. Around the pagoda are Sanjin Hall, Sangong Hall, Luohan (Arhat) Hall, and a copper bell cast in the Qing Dynasty. Other scenic sites in the park are Peony, East Wind, and Xiyu (Seasonable Rain)Pavilons among others. The aforementioned steel bridge is known as "The First Bridge over the Yellow River". 250 Meters long and eight meters wide, it has five arches resting on four piers. The construction of this bridge started in 1907 and was complet-ed in 1910 by a German engineering firm. It actually is the first big bridge on the mainstream of the Yellow River. Five Spring Park (Wu Quan shan)
This park, bustling with visitors and activities, is Lanzhou's biggest. Inside the park are five springs, hence the name. They are~weet Dew, Moon-Scoping, Child-Seek-ing, Benefit-Giving, and Meng Spring. According to legend, these five springs were found by Huo Qubing, a famous gen-eral of the Han Dynasty. It is said that when he passed through this area leading troops into battle, they were thirsty, so he wielded his whip and the five springs emerged. These springs, small as they are , have never dried up since then. In addition to these five springs, some other little brooks emanate from the mountain slope and run down the hillsides. The water, clear and sweet, produces a rare scene in the dry loess plateau.

In the park, many richly ornamented old pavilions, man-sions and temples with carved beams and painted rafters such as Qianfu Hall, Wenchang Palace, Banyue Pavilion stand together with modern mechanical carnival facilities such as a merry-go-round, bumper and racing cars, and over-head pedal cabs. Together they make the park interesting and attractive to all ages.
Various recreational activities are held in the park in-cluding flower shows, colored lantern displays, painting and calligraphy exhibits and acrobatics and magic performances. Among the cultural relics, is the Tainhe Iron Bell of the Jin Dynasty (Cast in 1202 A. D. ). Weighing up to 5, 000 kg, it is three meters high and two meters in diameter. On its surface are cast these words:" At the sound of this bell, an-gels delight while devils take fright; destroy hell, help the needy and relieve the distressed". Considering the techno-logical conditions of 700 years ago, it was by no means easy to cast such a big and complicated iron bell. Another famous relic is the Bronze Buddha of the Ming Dynasty (sculpted in 1370 A. D. ). It is more than five meters tall with a circum-ference of 2.65 meters. Beautifully formed the Buddha's face smiles with kindness and mercy:it is an impressive work of art.
On the main gate of the park, there is an inscription, "Its a pleasure to visit this famous mountain", written by Shu Tong, a famous calligrapher.

Dong Biwu, former vice-chairman of the People's Re-public of China, composed a poem for the park:
Famous for its fine scenery; Loved by all Lanzhouese.
Quiet though near the downtown;
Heavy with coiling incense.
Little brooks run down little paths;
Mighty mountains tower by a mighty pass.
It is for this I long—unambitious peace;
I stand among trees alone , watching flying clouds. This poem give a lively description of the park~s scenic and geographic features.
Nanshan (South Mountain) Park
Nanshan Park lies atop the mountain while Five Spring Park lies at its foot. Today, these two parks are connected by a newly-built cable car line whose lower terminal is near the eastern gate of Five Springs Park;it stretches more than 1,000 meters up the mountainside. Sitting in the ski lift type chairs and being carried up, visitors can see a marvellous spectacle of beautiful scenery and a view of the city below. In the summer, many huge water jets rise from amidst the green trees and colorful flowers. These rotating water jets are the irrigation system used on the mountainside and they give a silvery mist and a refreshing sheen to the scene.
Nanshan Park is different from many other parks in

that its site used to be a treeless, dry loess mountain. Later, the people of Lanzhou transported water uphill from the Yellow River, terraced the hillside, and planted mill'inons of trees and flowers; then they constructed pavillions and other lovely structures . As a result, the appearance of the whole mountain has been completely transformed. Today. along 'the ridge are willow, poplar, cypress, pine , peach and other trees as well as shrubs, all forming stretches of thick woods. In these areas, birds sing and fragrant flowers bloom. The entire top of the montain is being covered with beautiful new structures, sight-seeing pavilions, tea gar-dens, childrents play grounds, and landscaped gardens. You will also see water pipes and pools and pumping stations here and there which remind you of the great effort made by the people in planting the trees and grasses and providing wa-ter. People from all levels of society have voluntarily labored here. Their sweat too has watered the mountain. No one ex-actly knows what per cent of the planted trees died. Though the survival rate was low at first, the pelple continued to la-bor , again and again replanting trees and developing the wa-tering system. Even though the situation now has greatly improved, intense efforts are still being made to plant new trees and protect the older ones. The water jets seen around the mountainside are really life giving springs. Nanshan Park is the pride of the Lanzhou people and shows their will and ability to transform their environment for the better.

Another aspect of the Nanshan always appreciated by Chinese and foreign visitors is the view'it provides of the city, especially at night. From the top, the myriad twinkling lights appear just like a sparkling sea. on which the big and small islets of more intense lights are the skyscrapers while the vertical and horizontal shining lines are the streets and rail lines. Multi-colored neon lights indicate large stores. What a magnificent scene! Happily relaxing, visitors often enjoy the scene so much they are reluctant to return home, In addition to the above major scenic spots, others are Yantan Park, Children's Park, West Lake Park, Grasslands Park, etc. There are row boats in Yantan and West Lake Parks . In Children's Park conveniently located near the new Yet[ow River bridge for easy access, there are many mechan-ical rides and other attractions for the children. In summer, local people frequent the huge outdoor swimming pool near Yantan. The newly constructed Grasslands Park is located at the far eastern end of the city and attracts many students and teachers on spring picnic outings. Tourist Attractions in the Suburban Areas.
Xing Long Mountains These mountains belong to the Mahan Mountain Range and are located 55 kilometers east of Lanzhou. Its lush
scenery attracts many visitors. Although not far from Lanzhou, the topographical features change dramatically

from the typical dry, barren loess hills to thickly wooded hillsides and mighty rock formations more common in the southern part of China. Enjoying the soughing of the wind in the towering pines and strolling under the giant trees, visi-tors from Lanzhou find themselves in an entirely different world the moment they arrive. It is recorded that in 1226 A. D., Genghis Khan and his troops stayed in the Xing Long Mountains for the summer. You can imagine how dense the forests used to be at that time. Even now , some stretches of the existing forest are said to be the remnants of the old primitive forests. They are valuable treasures in the loess plateau. No wonder Xing Long Mountains have been highly praised by Chen Yi and Zhu De, famous marshals of China, as the primary mountain in Gansu.In 1939, during the War of Resistance against Japan, at the request of the Mongolian people, the government of that time moved Genghis Khan's coffin from Inner Mongolia to the Xing Long Mountains. It was hidden inside the original Giant Buddha Hall. Before liberation, it was transported to Taer Lamasery, Qinghai Province by Ma Bufang, a warlord. Finally, in1954, the coffin was returned to Inner Mongolia. Today on the old site of the Giant Buddha Hall , a memorial hall of Genghis Khants mausoleum has been erected exhibit-
ing replicas made according to drawings and pictures provided by the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region. In order to

duplicate the original scene, all of the replicas are put at the places where the real articles actually lay. An example is the sculpture of the Gautama Buddha inside a hall on the origi-nal site of the Giant Buddha Hall.
Binglingsi Grottoes
After boarding the boat at the giganticdam at Liujiaxia Power Station and sailing through its long, beautiful reser-voir, visitors enter the Yellow River. At this section of the river, picturesque , fantastic peaks stand on both sides. Ac-cording to their shapes , local people have given many of them descriptive names, such as: Twin Sister Peak, Camel Peak, Stone Gate Peak and so on . Lost in reverie, the tourist, sitting comfortably in the boat, enters the Dasigou Valley to behold the famous Binglingsi Grottoes. Bingling is a Tibetan term meaning '100, 000 Buddhas". This place used to be a very busy ferry crossing of the ancient silk Road. The construction of the grottoes began in the Sixteen States. Its first name, prior to the Northern Wei Dynasty, was Tangshu Temple: Long Xing Temple during the Tang Dynasty: later, Ling Yan Temple. It was not until the Ming
Dynasty that it got its current name—Binglingsi. It consists of three parts: Shangsi (Upper Tmple),Donggou (Cave Gully)
and Xiasy (Lower Temple). A 30-meter-high Buddha in a sitting posture is carved on the steep cliff of Xiasi. Its upper
half is Sulpted from the cliff face itself while the lower part is made of clay. Though eroded by wind and rain for hun-

dreds of years, the sculpture is still in excellent condition. The folds in its outer garments are distinct and smooth. It still has its solemn appearance. Niches and statues are cut into the 2-kilometer-long steep cliff face on which can still be seen many holes which are the remains of old construc-tion reminiscent of the plank roads built along cliffs in an-cient Sichuan. There are altogether 183 caves with 694 stone sculptures, 82 clay figures, and many murals of which the Three-Buddha Mural in cave g 169 is of great value, The faces of the three Buddhas are glowing with health and their vigor radiates in the gaze of their vivid eyes. According to its inscription, it is the earliest recorded mural existing in China and therefore a great national treasure.

Located on the north bank of the Datong River in Yongdeng County 120 kilometers from Lanzhou, Tulugou, like Xing Long Mountain, attracts visitors chiefly because of its vivid natural scenery. Tolugou is a long valley with steep cliffs and fantastically shaped peaks on both sides. Since the valley is more than ten kilometers long, it provides the visi-tors with a vast playing area where it is easy to single out fa-vorite places to enjoy themselves and appreciate the pleasure of ' returning to nature". This kind of enjoyment is usually out of the question for them in small, crowded city parks.
Visitors see dense forests with countless grotesque rocks,

exotic flowers and rare trees. Strolling through the valley, they see striking vistas constantly emerge. There are too many beautiful things for the eye to take in. Eighteen of the more famous scenic spots have been named by the local peo-ple: Yinghinshi (Greeting Lion); Shanlong Xishi (Cedar Dragon Playing on the Rock); Yougu Qing Yin (Musical Sounds coming from the Deep , Secluded Valley); Mileshi (l~ock Looking Like Maitreya Buddha); and Tong Tian Meng (Gate Leading to Heaven). You might as well use your imagination and give your own vivid names to the place you like best.eRecently, pavilions, towers, and service facili-ties have been constructed for visitors'convenience . This valley is within the Liancheng Tree Farm, which itself is a beautiful site. The Lutusi Government Office, Miao Yin Temple and Gada Temple are other scenic places near Tulu-gou. They are naturally connected with Tulugou and form a large tourist area.

Other scenic locations

Besides the three above-mentioned scenic spots , some other famous ones in the suburbs of Lanzhou are Shifugou Valley, in the Qilihe District; Shou Lu Mountain, west of Jintain County; Ren Shou Mountain, in the Anning District;
Water Park in the Xigu District;and Xiangtang Gorge in the Honggu District .
Visitors who want to see the Forest Park in Shifugou
should first get to the 16-kilometer point of the highway

leading to A Gan , then turn east. In the park, there is the famous Qixing or "Big Dipper "Spring. It is said that the Big Dipper will be reflected in the spring on clear nights, hence the name. Water of the spring is clean and sweet. Beside the spring stands a stone tablet on which the name has been carved. This stone tablet erected during the reign of Empor-er Daoguang, Qing Dynasty.
Shou Lu Mountain lies 35 kilometers away from Lanzhou in Jintai County at an elevation of 2300 meters. It is covered by dense forests of pine, cypress~ and dragon spruce (picea asperata), a valuable species. It is recordsd that an old Buddhist monk and a white deer were living together in a temple in the depths of the forest during the reign of Em-porer Kahg Xl. 'Lu'means deer in Chinese, thatfs why peo-ple named it shou Lu Mountain.
Water Park in Xigu , a completely artificial lake dug by the local people , is a good place for rowing, swimming and other recreational activities.
Ren Shou Mountain is the main peak in the An Ning Area. It is recorded in the county annals that, in olden times ~ many local people were able to live long lives of even morn than 100 years. 'Ren Shou' means"Manfs Long Life ".hence the name. This is the central site of the Peach Blossom Fair to be mentioned later.
Xiang Tang Gorge is 15 kilometers long ~ It lies south
of Yaojie Township in the Honggu District. Steep cliffs loom

on both sides: as the Datong River rushes through the gorge, its white foaming waters leap skywards just like large flying snowflakes. It is a thrilling scene for visitors, but dan-gerous if they are not careful. It is said that Princess Wencheng of the Tang Dynasty passed through the gorge on her way to Tibet.

Folk Customs
Folk performances daring the Spring Festival Each year during Spring Festival, farmers around
Lanzhou automatically organize Folk Performance Teams consisting of men , women and children of all ages. These
teams go to town to give performances for several days. All the members of the teams dress in colorful stage costumes
and perform on the main streets of town: performances in- clude stilt walking, "rowing" multicolored boats , dragon chases , lion dances , and so on . The most popular characters portrayed are the main characters from traditional literature such as"Journey to the West"or" Prime Minster Bao",
an incorruptible official of the Song Dynasty. Some charac-ters, usually children, portray characters in elaborate, fixed
montages transported on trucks . Supported by iron reinforcement bars, some of these montages look really danger-
ous and breathtaking. For example, a team member dressedas "Monkey", the main character in "Journey to the west",
stands with only one leg on an iron rod about 2 em in diame-

ter; he may also appear to be supporting two or three other charcters in the palms of his hands, such performances are called"Tiesinzi" (iron core).
Taiping Drum performances, peculiar to Lanzhou, are an indispensable part of the performance parade. Although therer are many kinds of drum performance, usually only the small drums are swung in the air while dancing :the big ones are usually just beaten. However, Taiping Drums are the only big ones which are beaten while swung overhead from the shoulder strap during the dance.When these cylin-drical drums (about one meter long and 2/3 meter in diame-ter, weighing about 20 kg)are swinging overhead during the dance, the performance is majestic and awe inspiring. This action takes a combination of strength, skill and boldness. It shows the Northwesterners' courage and strength; there-fore, on hearing its thunderous and rhythmical beating, no one can refrain from being attracted to watch the perfor-mance. During the most recent Asian Games, Taiping Drums were performed for the first time in Beijing and greatly suprised the people there. Since then, the Taiping Drums have become well-known all over the country.
Peach Blossom Fair
Peach blossoms glow
on mist covered streams;
Lush grasses grow

on the winding paths.
Swarming into Anning in April
come bees and visitors;

Then the landscape on Renshou Mountain surpasses anywhere else. by Gao Hailong Anning District has long been known as" Peach Town-ship". The porous, fertile soil there is good for growing peach trees. There are altogether more than 300, 000 peach trees of 170 species such as: Baifeng, Banshuibugan, Honey, and so forth. Huge peach orchards stretching tens of kilome-ters naturally attract thousands of visitors in sprin~g when the people of Lanzhou have just put aside their heavy winter clothes, want to relax and are in the mood to enjoy this sun-lit and enchanting scene of spring. As a result , this spring outing has long been one of the local customs. A decision was made in 1984 by the local government that a Peach Blossom Fair would be held annually. Each year visitors to the Fair number more than 700, 000.Besides peach blossom viewing, various other activities are held at the fair to include musical performarices, sports competitions, painting and calligraphy exhibitions as well as commodities fairs. The tourist focus of the fair is on Ren- shou Mountain, mentioned earlier, with its many scenic locations such as Linyun Hall, Zushi Temple, Renshou pavilion

and Cuihong Hall. Visitors flock to these places thus making the Peach Blossom Fair the biggest"Modern Temple Fair"in Lanzhou.
Tea Making in Lanzhou
People around Lanzhou have their own distinctive ways of making tea. One of them is called"Sanpaotai", available at any park of scenic location or restaurant throughout Lanzhou. In making the tea, a three-piece tea set consisting of teacup, cover and saucer is used. Inside the teacup there is tea, several logan berries, some rock sugar and hot water. Other ingredients may be added. Tea made in this way has an especially good taste and the logan berry has long been health, lout if you drink too much, especially when you have an empty stomach, you may become ' tea drunk" in which case you may feel kind of dizzy. With rock sugar and logan berries in the tea , the possibility of becoming tea drunk is greatly reduced.
Westeners put sugar and milk into tea, while people in Lanzhou put rock sugar and logan berries; though different in approach, it is equally satisfying in result. Try it and you will surely enjoy it.

Guan Guan Tea
Guan Guan tea is enjoyed by the farmers around Lanzhou. It is made in a small earthenware pot (50-100 cu-
bic cm)placed on a slow fire usually, of tree root , and steeped for a long time. After being simmered gently in this fashion, the tea is mixed with a little table salt , walnut ker-nels and maybe something else and poured into a cup to drink. The quantity is only enough for one or two mouth-fulls at a time: therefore, it is very strong and bitter but peo-ple are greatly invigorated after drinking such stong tea. For some people, the first thing they do after getting up in the morning is to drink this tea.

Folk Drama Performances
Although Long Opera is formally considered Gansu' s local opera, many people of Gansu, both town and country
folk, like Qin (shaanxi) Opera. They often enjoy singing it themselves. This is probably because the rhyme scheme of
Qin Opera is more sonorous and exciting and easily expresses their emotions. Qin Opera performances are often orga-
nized or sponsored by its fans in the farmerst tea houses in Lanzho(l, &mateur actors or actresses often sing and per-
form accompanied only by one Banhu (a bowed, stringed-lnstrument with a thin wooden soundboard)and several gongs
and drums. The arias are primarily adopted from the most popular traditional theatrical pieces such as ' Qin
Xiangltan', the main character in a drama of the same name whose husband forsook her and their two childern when he
became the emporer' s son-in-law . Such arias have been popular for a long time and people never get tired of listen-

lng to them. This kind of performance is one of the real folk recreational activities of the region. It is very popular in to-day~ s peaceful times when the people are living and working in contentment. Even in the public garden of the East Is Red Square, several Qin Opera performing groups can often be seen, sometimes surrounded by hundreds of people , most of whom are retired cadres and both old and young workers and farmers from the countryside.

Local Refreshments
The cuisine is a distinctive part of Chinese Civilization. Although there are fewer varieties of food in Lanzhou than in Southern cities, it has its own typical dishes and refresh-ments. They are a pleasure not to be denied during a visit to the area. Some of the most popular are:
Lanzhou Beef Noodles (Niu rou mian) Among the local popular, low-priced food, beef noodles,
famous all over the country, are one of the people's favol:ites. It is made of ordinary flour mixed with a little spe-
cially-made plant ash. The dough is kneaded by a skillful cook and divided into small pieces of about 150 g covered by
a thin layer of vegetable oil to keep it moist. While the diner watches, the pieces of dough are quickly pulled by hand by
repeatedly swinging them up and down into various sizes as desired by the diner: fine, medium, coarse, or leek like. They
are then added to a clear beef broth and condiments, such

as hot-pepper oil, and bits of garlic and coriander added. Heavily seasoned, but not too greasy, it has a long lasting af-tertaste. Local people never tire of it . Since one big bowl of beef noodles costs less than one yuan, it is an inexpensive but substantial meal. Lanzhou Beef Noodles are now sold in Beijing, Xian, Chengdu and many other cities in China: how-ever, the taste in other places is not as good as the "real ones"in Lanzhou. You will agree after you try for yourself.

Mutton Soup with Unleavened Biscuit
After being stewed without soysauce, the cooked mut-ton is pressed tightly and then cut into pieces. The pieces are mixed with soup and vermicelli and put on a quick fire to boil: finally bits of garlic stem and coriander and other sea-soning are added. The large, flat, round unleavened biscuit typical of the area is a perfect complement for the mutton soup.Cooked in this way, the soup is clear, fragrant, and rich but not greasy; the mutton is fresh, tender and without the strong smell usually associated with it. Mutton soup is a good tonic in winter.
Rangpizi (cold starch noodles) The starch is washed out of the flour (the substance
left over is used to make gluten)and , in a sticky state, the starch is put into special shallow round steamers, usually
made of galvanized iron or aluminum, for cooking. The cooked rangpizi is cut into small pieces like noodles and
mixed with several pieces of steamed gluten and boiled green

mung bean sprouts and seasoned to taste. Cooked rangpizi is semi-transparent, as smooth as jelly, and as pliable and tough as noodles. It is enjoyed by the local people. Stir-fried bean jelly (iiang fen)
Cold liang fen is sold all over the country,but stir-fried liang fen is one of the specialities of Lanzhou. It is cut into cubes and stir-fried in large frying pans containing a little vegetable oil. A slow fire is used until the cubes become golden brown. Pepper oil, mashed garlic, sesame butter, vinegar and other condiments are added. It is a good snack all year round.
Deep Fried Cake
Rock sugar, powdered sugar, treated rose, walnuts, sesame seeds and several other ingredients provide filling for vegetable oil treated dough which is shaped into small round cakes and fried. The cakes are sweet, fragrant, moist and delicious.
Fried Meat Pie
Pork or beef is the filling for the dough which is fried into golden brown pies in large frying pans, They are crisp, delicious and fragrant.
Wine Peizi (Sweet fermented wheat) Cold boiled water and sugar are added to fermented wheat. It is cool, refreshing, antipyretic and thirst quench-ing, It is a good summertime snack.
Red Pea Gruel

Peas and dates are boiled on a slow fire until very soft but still retain their shape. Sugar is added before eating. Itis a delicious and economical food all year round. Eaten while hot in winter, it warms you up; eaten when cold in the sum-mer, it is antipyretie and thirst quenching. Shish Kebab (Roast mutton on skewers—kao yang rou) Small chunks of sheep meat on skewers are roasted over a charcoal fire and seasoned liberally with ground red pepper, wild pepper (Chinese prickly ash), and salt. Most of-ten this delicious snack can be bought from the Hui minority vendors at any park and on any evening at the free markets and along the street sides. It is greatly enjoyed by the people of Northwestern China.
Hot Tongguo Pears
Boiled with rock sugar over a slow fire until very soft, cooked pears are not only delicious and thirst quenching but also have medicinal benefits for lung invigoration, phlegm reduction, and cough suppression.
Major Shopping Areas
Facing thousands of stores and markets, a visitor may be overwhelmed and not know where to shop. Recommended here are two of the most important shopping areas where al-most everything can be bought.
Tieluju (Railway Bureau) Area
Starting from the railway station take the # 9 bus or

the # 21 trolley bus: get off at "Tieluju". On the northern side of the intersection stands a skyscraper—Lanzhou Indus-trial and Trading Center;on the other side stands Minzhux-ilu Department Store. Around these two buildings are many different shops and a large free market—Tielu Xincun Free Market—where all sorts of things including agricultural products, vegetables, fruits, prepared food, clothing, farm by-products, and light industrial good can be bought. Nanguanshizi (South Pass Intersection) Area Take the #1 or #9 bus, or the #31 trolley bus to the Lanzhou Department Store (also called Naguanshizi). From there the major shopping district stretches north to Central Square where the office of the People' s Government of Gan-su Province is located, and then to the west toward Xiquan-shizi. Along this one-kilometer section is the old downtown area of Lanzhou, still the busiest shopping district of the city. Here can be found all sorts of markets and shops in-cluding the largest book stores, family electronic equipment stores, groceries, and restaurants. It is a great area for buy-ing or just window-shopping.

Native Products
Local Arts and Handicrafts
Lanzhou Carved Bottle Gourds
A kind of small bottle gourd growing in the Lanzhou
area is carved with various pictures and patterns to include

human figures, flowers and birds which look very lively and vivid. Production of these works of art has a history of more than seventy years. The carving skill has developed to such a degree that even the techniques of traditional Chinese calligraphy and painting are shown on the gourds to include traditional contour sketching, touching, light-ink stroking and dyeing. The gourds are extremely popular souvenirs for all visitors.
Multicolored Glass Vases
Glass vases are produced in many areas of China . Faced with such stiff competition, the Lanzhou Glassware Factory has ,held its position in domestic and overseas markets for a long time with its ingenious designs, exquisite workman-ship, and low prices. Multicolored glass vases sell well in more than fifty countries or areas including the U. S., Japan and Hong Kong. Many people buy the vases as gifts.
Carved Yellow River Stones
Stones with beautiful natural colors and wonderful shapes are carefully selected. Skillful artists make use of the natural colors, patterns, and shapes and create vivid, lively figures. These stones are truly works of art worth owning.
Bronze Galloping Horse Replicas
The Bronze Galloping Horse (the symbol of China
Tourism) was a great find when excavated from the sands of
Gansu some years ago. In order to meet the demands from
tourists, Gansu Arts and Crafts designed and produced repli-

cas in different sizes. They all look very much like the origi-nal in shape and color. They are boxed for easy shipment and are inexpensive. As a result, these products have won appreciation from visitors at home and abroad.
Gypsum Pillows
According to Chinese traditional medicine theories, gyp-sum has a cold nature: therefore, pillows made of carved gypsum are highly valued in hot areas. Sleeping with your head resting on it in summer makes you feel cool and com-fortable. It is an excellent, functional handicraft.
Famous Native Agricultural Products
These products include fresh and dried lily bulbs, black moss, dried day lily flowers, garlic, fennel, black melon seeds, whits melon seeds, Juema (Potentilla ansevina)and others as discussed earlier.
Traditional Medicinal Herbs
These include Danggui (Angelica root), Dangshen (Codonopsis pilosula), milk vetch, licorice root, rhubarb, gastrodia tuber (Gastrodia elata), bezoar of ox, Chinese caterpillar fungus (Cordyceps sinensis), Chinese wolfberry, and others as discussed earlier.
Traditional Chinese Patent Medicines)
A wide variety of these medicines are produced by the
Lahzhou Fu Ci pharmaceutical Factory and have long been
known at home and abroad for their good quality and effica-
cy. They include Liuweidihuang Pills,Shiquan Dabu Pill,

Danggui Jinggao Tablets, and Er Yi Pills.
Native Fleece and Fur Products
Fur sheets of processed dogskin make excellent mois-ture resistant and anti-rheumatism bedding articles. Ermao fur from Tan (Tibetan) lambs (about 45 days old with fleece more than 7cm long ) and fur from Tan lambs (about 30 days old with fleece less than 7cm long) have long been famed for their snow white sheen, lightness, and wavy pattern. Fur from Black Sheep is a speciality of Gansu famed for its warmth and dirt resistance. Adult sheepskin overcoats provide great warmth and are excellent for the outdoor life. All these products sell well throughout China.
Other valuable and expensive fur products which are s01d in Lanzhou include Saoxue, fox, and lynx furs, Sanbei lamb fur and beaver pelts among others. Native Tobacco Products and Spirits Shredded Tobacco (for water pipes)
Famous as ~i local speciality, shredded tobacco has a
long history. Processed by a special method, it contains more
than ten kinds of traditional herbs and perfumes. It is very
fragrant and has some medicinal benefits such as miasma-re-
sistance, mosquito repellent qualities, and general refreshing
effects, One suprising aspect is that it becomes more fra-
grant when transported to the southern coastal areas be-
cause it absorbs moisture from the air in those areas where

the humidity is much higher than in Lanzhou.
Longnan Chun, Silu Chun, Liangzhou Daqu and Tian-shui Tequ are famous brands of spirits produced in Gansu which are inexpensive and of good quality.
Wool Cloth
Wool cloth produced in Lanzhou is well known all over the country. Each year many new fabric designs are intro-duced. Some brands enjoy especially good reputations: Gold-en Plum Blossom Brand' s dacron-wool-viscose mix for fancy colthing: Golden Fruit Brand navy cloth: Beauty Brand melton: Xuelian (sanssurea involucrata) Brand uniform cloth: Five Springs Brand melton: and Peony Brand woollen figured blankets.