In the year of the 1877 ,the father of the contemporary geography the German man called Mr. Lixihuofen in the book which is written by him , named the place where china and the central River district
(the area between the Arm River of the central Asia and Xir River),and The traffic route could do business about silk and other tradeas a intermedium between china and Indian, and It was called' Seidenst Rssen' (Silk Road), The author of this book think the concept of the Silk Road has two meanings: The other name of china is 'saris'(silk),which represent china, Hence the first
meaning of the Silk Road is ' The Road which lead to china' and the second meaning of it is The Road ,which is interweaved each other just like silk.So put the two meaning together it can be considered as "The Road that economic culture intercommunion can be conducted"
The Road in this book it indicate it was before The people of republic of China, and since it had been put down in writing and ruins. So the author of this book named it "ancient silk Road'(the concept of it ,that is for the travelling business aspect ,which is a little bit different from the traditional concept of the Silk Road, Please be attention]. According to this definition
that lt can be considered as : " The ancient Silk
Road had been opened at the beginning of the human beings Many things had been carried through the ancient Silk Road to the hinterland of china. Such as grape,megranate, pepper,carrot,walnut,
acrobatics,Buddhism,Islamism,Christianism,precious stone,fur,Guzheng, lute,flute,fig,fire gun,compass,slik,rhubarb,tea,gold,food,ironware,

lacquer,ginger,silk,mulbery technique; grilled,smoke,technique, smelt brass technique, alchemically, paper currency,abacus, books,ect.
The book start from the angle of travelling business that emphasize and discuss the hotspot on the Silk Road at the present. and It concern the places up to ten provinces of china and twenty eight countries as well.

¢ò. The sort of the Silk Road

The Silk Road can be divided into 4 kinds.pasture land Silk Road ,oasis Silk Road,Mountain Silk Road ,
Ocean Silk Road, and every kind has several material route as well.
1, Pasture land ancient Silk Road
Pasture land Silk Road that has main part is Xinjiang Altay area where main product of china is gold.and It is starting in the east form the northern part of Daxinganling to Mongolia Altiploano,Xinjiang Altay
district ,then to every place of the world.
The Road from north to south in Xingjiang area can be divided into Haba River Road,Huoshaoshan Road,Miquan Road Ergils Road and Wulun ancient Road.



[I] Haba River Road
From Mongolia Altiploano entering into the northern part of the ALTAY Mountain,then after going through the area around ARKEKULI, Kanas Lake, then from Haba River to Haba River County and then from Haba River County
to Jimsar County ,At last one can go to the every part of the world.

[II] Huoshaoshan Road
The Road from Mongolia Altiploano to FuyunCounty,acrossing Huoshao Mountain to Jimar County where it is joined with oasis silk ancient Road.

[III] Miquan Road
The Road from Mongolia Altiploano to Altay city then across Ergils River to Fuhai and Miquan County where it is joined with oasis ancient Silk Road

[VI] Ergils Road


The Road from mongolia Altiploano to the County now called Yiwu.,Hami city Balikun Kazak autonomous County area ,then going through Mulei Kazak
autonomous County Qitai ancient city ,Gerneral Gobi, Qinhe County [One can also go into Qinhe County directly
from Mongulia Altiploano.],Fuyun County [One also can go into Fuyun County directly from Mongolia as well,and going along the Ertixs River to Burqin,
And after passing Burqin County to Gilmar County, then to the all the place in the wrold.
2,Water area Road
The Road from Mongolia Altiplano to Fuhai County where the Kalagilgis River Ertixs River Zaishangbo Lake are located,and then to all the place in the world.
5,Wulungu Road
The Road from Mongulia Altiplano to YiWu ,Hami city, Balikun Kazak autonomous County area.and going through Mulei Kazak autonomous County ,Qitai ancient city
General Gobi ,to Qinhe County,[Or from Mongolia Altiploano to Qinhe County],and going along Wulun River to Fuhai County [Or from Mongulia Altiplano directly into the north east side of the Altay city then entering into Fuhai County After going through and Bukesar Mongolian autonomous County. If travelling westward, one may start from Tacheng city Alashan pass to all the places around the world,if going southward ,one can across the Kramayi city where it is joined with oasis silk ancient Road.
1. The north of Tarim basin Road
For The Road which go along the north of the basin Hence the name 'Tabei Road'
in chinese.It was also called 'Noth Road' during Han danasty.Han book said;
"The Sheshi former court [It is the ancient Jiaohe city in Xinjiang today. From Bei Mountain[indicate Tianshan Mountain] along River westward to ShuLe
(the place around Xinjiang Kashgar as in today) which is the North Road. It across Cong Ling(indicate Pamir Altiplano) westward. then going out of Dawan[The place around the Feirkana oasis in Uzbekstan

as in today.Kangju(the place around Samarhan oasis in Wuzbekstan as in today),Yancai(Located in the west of Kangju,and east of Caspian Sea)
During the North South Danasty ,South Road of the Jungar basin had been opened Hence It was called "North new Road"and "New north Road",Or the North Road of Tarim
basin was called "Middle Road",The South Road of Jungar basin was called "North Road' The north Road of the Tarim basin,after going through from Anxi to Dunhuang,going through Yumen Pass to the North-west,passing Turpan,(Cheshi former country),Yanji
(Beidaqu village,Sishilichenzi valliage,Sevenstar village),Korla(Tashidian),Tiemen Pass,
The ancient city of Korla ect,Cedaya Village of the Luntai County (WuLei]),Kuche[Qiuzi],Aksu(Gumo),Kashgar(Shule),Pamir Altiplano[Conglin],Feirkana Smarha in Uzbekstan, The Malei[Mulu city], Mashihade in Iran[Anxi or Persian], Damakan, Teheran and Hamadan[Aman],
Binshi and Bagdad (Saliuliya) in Iraq, (the area of Tiaozhi country), The Laka[Sefaliang
in Syria( the area of the Tiao zhi country,)to Antajina [Andu city] in Turkey( Daqin or Lixian, the area the ancient Rome empire are located). Disparting from Antajina, going through Ankara from north west to Istanbul (Junshitanding fort), then one may
again come to Rome,Venice, Paris, London, Amsterdan,or going through The Beirut of the Lebanon, Saida(xidun),Jerusalem, and Sur(Weiluo), till the Cairo of Egypt or Saudi Arabia [Dashi], One can from here again go to Rome ,Venice ,Pris, London ,Amsterdam.ect.

2. The south Road of the Tarim basin

The Road which going along the south fringe of the Trim basin,Hence the name .It was also called " South Road", " the Han book" said:
" From Shanshan (the area of the RuoQiang nowadays) going along northern of the South Mountain[Kun Lun Mountain],then going along the River westward to Shache It was so called South Silk Road. It across Congling(Pamirs£© , then going out of the Darouzhi,£¨the area around Arm River basin nowadays£©, An xi,".
The Road ,that after passing by Dunhang from Anxi£¨Guazhou£© then going out of Yangguan Pass ,west-southward ,passing or not passing Loulan[Loubupo area] , to the RouQiang, Qiemo, Mingfen(Jingjue), Cele(Hanni),Hotan(Yutian), Pishan, Shache, Pamirs Altiplano[Congling],it can be divided into two way, south way which passing Islambad of Pakistan ,to Indian (Shendu or Tianzhu) New delhi, then one can go to other place, and West way which passing Fazabade[Arm River basin, the old haunt of Darouzhi] of Afghanistan[Daxia] ,and westward till Helate or going west-northward to Malei(Mulu city) Where it can join the north Road of the Tarim basin.

The south Road of the Jungar basin
The Road that is was latest formed of three ancient Road on the Silk Road.for its located
in the southern fringe of Jungar basin ,hence the name
According to " New Tang book" :The from Anxi westward passing by Xingxing Pass, Hami[Yiwu] ,Mulei,Qitai[Ancient city],Jimsar[Tingzhou], Fukang, Miquan, Urumqi[luntai],Changji[Zhangbaoshouzhuo], Wusu, Jinghe[Shiqihe], Huocheng[Gongyue city], Yining,
Yili of the Kazakstan or Alamata , Tokmak city(Cuiye) of the Gilgils, to the Henlousi of the Kazakstan,and one can go to other place.In addition to this,the east-west direction of the south of Jungar Road,
The north Road of Tamrim Road and south Road are connected by the chennel of south-north direction, to make the Silk Road of oasis become the prolongation of network state.The channel of south-north direction has the green corridor which across the Taklimakan Desert, and the channel of valley join the Tianshan south and the north.
Acrossing the green corridor of the Taklimakan desert. Taklimakan are located In the center of the Taklimakan desert, which is long about 1000 kilometer from east to west, and the width of it is about 400 kilometer from north to south, which is covering area about
337000 square kilometer, 85 per cent of it is shifting dune, and It is extremely dry, The rainfall of the inner part every year is only 10 millimeters .Historically, especially before The Tang ,Song, Dynasty, the main traffic main stem, which connect the fringe of the south-north of the Tarim basin is not the route that going along the east-west side of the basin at The moment, but it is the four green corridors across the center of the desert.:
1, Yerqiang. (from Moyu County nowdays), "westward from Gume (Akesu) 1450 li"([[han
Book]]), this Road is now at Klakash River ancient River way, from west of the Meyu County(The ancient territory of Pishan country), going through westward the desert, passing by Between the Mazhatage , and Qiaogetag Mountain, then entering into the River valley of
The Yerqiag River, till Aksu. It had been went by monk of Tang dynasty.
2, Hetian River Road. ( from Aksu), " It will take 15 days south to Hetian by horse riding."
(see[han book]), The route from He tian city , going along the Yulong Kashgar River, Hetian River northward to Aksu, It can be shorter than the Road bypassing the Kashgar About 500 kilometers, also shorter than the Road bypassing the Bachu about 300 kilometer.
The man called Banchao always came and went on the Road during the han dynasty.
3, KELIYA River Road which is passing by the Keliya River of the Yutian ciunty nowadays.
And it is will disappeared when it get to the center of the desert, and it is still more than I60 kilometer from Shaya County, The west branch ancient River Road of
Keliya River ever flowed into the Hetian River about 100 years ago which was passed by the man called Xusong who was in the department of polite in Qin dynasty ;The middle branch ancient Road of The Keliya River ever flow into the old River valley of the
Tarim River about 1000 years ago, which had been passed by the famous monk called
Faxian in the Jin dynasty; The masterpiece book (Lashideshi) about central asia had been
written by Haidar during 16 century had definite recordation said that the east branch
ancient River
Road of the Keliya River ever flowed into the ancient River Road of the Tarim basin.
4 Niya River Road,. That passing the Niya River in the Mingfen County (the territory of
the ancient Jinjue country) ,And it has ever flowed into Keliya River., The Road had been
declined after the Jinjue country was conquered during 4 century AD.
The the channel of Mountain valley which is connecting the Tianshan Mountain
In the north and south is between the Xingjiang Jungar basin and Tarim basin and
The towering Tianshan Mountain its length as much as to 1700 kilometers. The main
Channel between two big basin have 9 Road: The Huagu Road which is connecting
Beiting(Jimsar County nowadays)and (Turpan basin nowadays), Yimo Road, Tube Road,
Wugu Road, and , Tadi Road ( the six material route will still have to be investigated by
The contemporary people). The Baishuijian Road which is connecting Urumqi and Turpan
, and the Musur Mountain Road which is connecting Zhaosu County and Wensu County (
the ancient city of Arksu ), ,and Badsa mountian Road which is connecting the east south
of Yisak Lake of Kirghiziastan (the Chishan city where the capital of the Wusun country
of the han dynasty ) ,the most difficult Road to go among them are Musur Mountain Road(
" Musur" the entrance of the glacier Mountain) and the Bada Mountain Road.
1, Musur Mountain Road .It is located in the east side of highest peak of the Tianshan
Mountain(above sea level 7435 meter), From the KerzibuLake of the Wen su County in the
south. Till Xiata of the Zhaosu County. It is about 120 kilometers long, Although the Road
is very difficult to go, but many peopal also go this Road. The book ((The west region
sightseeing record)) side :
".......: . Musur , means : the glacier.........
"......, southward, there is snow sea, very big. And it is extrimely deep,
When the animal and people pass the zig -zag way of the slope the Mountain flank, then
Falling down to the cave ,one can never find it.and passing it aout 20 Li, it is glacier ,
There is no ground and sand,and no grass and tree, everything is ice. One can not know
The exact thick of it, the Mountain is high precipitous and it is shield like peak., just
like Cong Mountain and Hua Mountain everywhere is ice. there is also fissure ,look down of
it , One can not find the end of it, the water sound just like thunder, everywhere is the

bone of horse ,camel, people, there is place where is very steep , also ice cave on it,
climbing along the peak it is very slithery. If you are careless and will fall into it.
Sometimes one can heard of slip of the ice.that sounds clearly, and the Mountain could
get response of it.
2, Bada Mountain Road .It is located in the west side of Tomur paek, it is very important Road where the central plain and the capital of the Wusun country can be
connected.the Road had been passed by Tangxuanzang who had ever written the book
(( west region of the Tang dynasty))said:
" The country( now it is the area around wensu County) westward about 300 Li, passing Shiji get to Linshan (Tomur peak), it is west plain of Cong Mountain,The main part of the water flow to the east. There is lot of snow in the Mountain valley. It will be frozen during
spring and summer, Although sometimes it will be smelt ,then it will have been frozen again
as well.the Road is very hard, cold wind is also violently, nad sometimes it had big cyclone.
the passer by sometimes will be die.

Right now , the 13 Road which connected south , and north channel. The best is Yarqiang
River Road , ( The place where the capital of Yarqian country are located during the year
of 1514 -1678.( The only green corridor in Takelamakan desert ), Keliyar River Road ( the secluded desert
primitive Tao yuan people ) , It has already been famed in the world. the Niya River Road( the Niya ruins is now most tempting place), Tadi Road ( also named small snow
Mountain Road, in the year of 1981 the book was written by Mr Zhandchenzhi who is Hui nation was arise resoundingly.Musur Mountain Road( The glacier ancient Road ) and Bada Mountain Road ( the Linshan Road of Tang monk). If you are interested in it. in the
meantime, you are not afraid to devote to this great exploration career. try this please!

(III) The Mountain Road of silk ancient Road
From west north to east south the sequence is : Tianshan Mountain Road , Kunshan Road, Qishan
Road, Alshan Road, Tangshan Road and Qinshan Road:

1 Tianshan Road
Tianshan Road Its named for it through The Tianshan Mountain in xinjiang , It can be divided
Into 3 Road from North to south :
Ala valley Road. The Road after westward to Turpan, then From Tokson County , passing The south Mountain
District, And old Baluntai , the north of the small Yourdus basin ,The corridor for preventing
snow in Gongnais, Gongnais forestry center, Arsha valley t9 the Xinyuan County Nraty village ,
form Nraty westward to Yinig city then It is connected the Road of south of the Jungar basin
in the oasis Silk Road.
2, Bakeshu Road, from inside china westward to Turpan , then from Tokson County southward ,
, passing Subashida Mountain(also called Gangou, was also called Leishiji during the Tang
dynassty), Kushimi town, Kumishi Mountain( it was also called "Silver Mountain", Elm
valley(it was called "Yinshanji", Heshuo County and Wushitala Hui village, The ancient
city of Quhui village , Hejin County to Harmodun village Ancient city of Harmodun village,
Then going along the River which is in the middle of the Big Yourdus basin westward to Swan Lake, then it is the place where the Bayinbuluk Gavernment are located. Then westward to the Lake of small dragan and the Lake of big dragan, and after the Salt water valley which is connected the Road of the north of the Tarim basin. Or from the place where the
Bayinbuluk Government are located northward to the "Yunzhong Road" to the Naraty village of the Xinyuan County, then from Naraty westward to the Yining city and going to the Road where is connected by the south Road of the Jungar basin in the oasis Silk Road.
3, The Beidaqu Road
Beidaqu Road ,from the inside china westward to the Quhui ancient city of the Heshuo County, After passing the Beidaqu village , and Qigexing village from west south , then northward to the Harmudun village of the Hejin County, then come to the Bakeshu Road where the Road can be joined together.

Kunlun Mountain Road
The Road, for it is cross the Kunlun Mountain Hence the name , It can be divided into 4 Road from west to the east .

1, The upper reaches of the Kalakashi River Mountain entrance Road.The Road , From Hetian city going along the up reaches of the Kalakashi River southward
, psssing the branch, Heweitan, Sacakou, to Wenquan or Nischu, then southward to across The Kunlun Mountain entering into The tibet , then One can go to other place in the world.By now , you can sight seeing by cross country vehicle.

2, The Mountain entrance of the two Lake . From Hetian city going along the Quanshui valley southward , passing the Mountain entrance which is between the Alkesaqin Lake and Salijileganan Lake, then entering into the Tibet, THEN One can go to the other place
of the world, The Road now is the Xingznag Road.

3, The Keliya Mountain entrance Road
The Road , from the Yutian couty going along the Keliya River southward, passing through the Entrance that is between the Mus Mountain (above sea level about 7282 meters) and the Qiongmustag Mountain(above sea level about 6920), then entering into Tibet, then
one can go to the other part of the world.
By now , one can go sjghtseeing the Keliyake Mountain entrance Road by cross country vehicle. The north of it is the Keliya River Road which is one of the green corridor in the Taklimakan desert forementioned in the above, Chang hong Lake of entrace of the valley, From Xinjiang Qiemo County the southside of the Chang hong Lake , Across the Kunlun Mountain , then enter into the Tibet. Then one can go to the other place in the world.. in the year of 1896 , the man called Shiwern,
Haoding had ever passed this Road to Tibet.
By now , you can take the cross country vehicle to visite the Road.The four Road mentioned above , it is very difficult to go, the whether is also very bad,
or the Road is Zigzag.

3, Qishan Road

For it across the Qilian Mountain . Qishan Road can be divided into Shahe Road, CaipenRoad;
(!)Shahe Road
Shahe Road , for the main part of the Road going along the River valley of the Sha River
(it had ever flowed into the Loubu River) Hence the name , it from Xian, passing Linxia of
the Gansu province(Baohan), at the Yongjinliujiaxia across the yellow River to the Minhe
(Shangcuan entrance) , Xining, then going along the southern of the Qilian Mountain westward
and acrossing Qilian Mountain to Zhangye(Ganzhou), again westward to Dunhuang , Phoenix
tree valley, Lapeiquan,
Sourkuli, Jinyan Mountain to Shanshan country(the area around Yixun city is the capital
of ancient Shanshan country, the ancient Loulan city), then it can join the north or the
south Road of the Tarim basin in the oasis silk ancient Road.
2, Caipen Road
Caipen Road , for its cross the Caidamu basin Hence the name., the Road from Zhangye westward
to the place in the Gansu,subei Mongulia autonomous County of the south side of the Dunhang,
Arkse Kazak autonomous county, Dangjin Mountain entrance, Dasugan Lake, Niubiziliang, Mangya
town, Shazidaban, to Shanshan country, then it will meet the north or the south of the
Tarim basin.

4, Areshan Road

The Road , for its Across the Are golden Mountain, Hence the name.
The Road ,from Xian ,passing the Linxia of the Gansu , across the yellow River to the Minhe of
the Qinhai province.Xinig, to thrash the Huang water then across The Sun ,Moon Mountain
(Red,Mountain), going along the southern bank of the Qinhai Lake ,Buha Riverthen to the
Caidamu basin, then across the Laomang cliff, then entering into the Ruoqiang, it will meet
the oasis Silk Road there.


Tanggula Mountain Road
The Road , to surmout the Tang gu la Mountain , hence the name. The Road can be divided
into the headstream of the Yangtse Huanghe River Road.
(1) The headstream of the Yangtse River.
The raod , from Xian to Xining ,then westward to surmout The Sun moon Mountain to Daotang
River, then westward to go along the south bank of the Qin hai Lake. After passing the Gromur
west-southward, the Yangse Headstream district in the Tang gula Mountain, Naqu, Lasha, Rikaza,
Lazi, Dingri, Nielamu to Zhangmu Pass, Going along the Mazhangzangbu River which is the branch
of the Henghe River then to surmout the Himalayas , entering into Nipor, Gademandu, Then
one can go to the other place .
(2) The Headsream of the Yellow River(Tangfan ancient Road)
The Road , from Xian to Xining , West-southward to surmout the Sun moon Mountain to
Daotang River, continuing westward , passing the Gonghe County, the Bayankala Mountain the
headstream of Yellow River district, The Yushu pasture land , Tongtian River, The Chawula
Mountain entrance of the Tang gula Mountain., Naqu, Lasa, Dingri, Rikaza, Lazi, Dingri,
Nielamu, to Zhamg mu pass, Going along the Mazhangzangbu River which is the branch of the
Henghe River , then to surmout the Himalayas, entering into Nipor, Gademandu, then one can
go to the other place.

6, Qinshan Mountain Road

Qin Mountain Road, for it is to surmout the Qin Mountain , hence the name.
Qin Mountain Road, from Xian to surmout the Qin Mountain to Chendu, Passing the Min River
, Gonglai, Yaan(Qinyin), Hanyua(zhai du), Xichang(gongdu). Jinsha River , Yunnan da yoao
(Qin Mountain), to Dali, or passing Yibin, Yunnan Zhaotong(zhuti), Kunming(dian chi) to
Dali, from Dali west-southward to Yongpin(Lao jie), Lanchang River, , Bao Mountain, Nu River,
Tengchong, Westward enter into Mian dian, then one can go to the other place .
(4)The Ocean Ancient Silk Road,
The road , which is accordding to the formal prermit of the orders that it can be divided
into as : the Indian Ocean Road, the Ocrean Road, the Pacific Ocean Road, and the Arctic
Ocean Road.


1, The Indian Ocean Road

The Road , that can join the China and Europe, Africa by way of The Indian Ocean, hence the
name.It was opened by the fleet which was dispatched by Hanwu emperor Liuche in the year of
115BC After Zhangqian second times visited Western Region.
The road that start from the west of the Xuwen County of Guangdong or the west of the Hepu
County of Guangxi enter the North Bay, then southward along the west bank of the North Bay,
The Coast of Vietnam, to the southmost part of the Vietnam,then passing Tailand Bay, westward
along the coast of Malai byland to Singapore, passing Malacca Channel westward to the place
which is around the westnorth of Basai River of Sumatra of Indonesia(Duyuan Cou Country),
Then from north upward to go along Mala byland west coast,to the place around southern of
Burma the entrence of the Sea of Sarmwen River.then sailing westsouth along theeastern bank of
Indian to Huangzhi Country which is in the southern part of the Indian , then southward to
SriLanka(Yichenbu Country)From Huangzhi Country which is in the southern part of the
Indian,going along Arab Bay and Persia or Red Sea to the other place of the Europe and Africa.
After Tang Dynasty , the Chinese ship can only directly get to The Java of the Asia,
Philippine and Europe ,Africa from Penlai of Shandong,Ye County,The Yangzhou of the
Jiangsu,Suzhou,Changzhou,Hangzhou of the Zhejiang,Shaoxin Fuzhou of Fujian,Quanzhou,Guangzhou
Port, It is not like that of the time the road was opened at the beginnng
that ship only cansail along the Coast.
2, The Atlantic Ocean Road
The road ,It can join China and Europe,Africa by way of the Atlantic Ocean, hence the name
In the time of 22,11,1497,a Portuguese called Da.Gama led on the fleet of Portugal
from The Atlantic Ocean across the Cape of Good Hope of southern part of the Africa,
It represented the road was formally opened.
3,The Pacific Ocean Road
The Road , It can join the China and Europe by way of the Pacific Ocean,hence the name.
In the time of 7,4,1521, a Portuguese called Maizhelun led the fleet of the Spain to
arrive in Philippine,and it reprented the road was formally opened .


4, The Arctic Ocean Road

The Road, that can join China and Europe by way of The Arctic Ocean,hence the Name.
from the coast of China of the east westward to pass The Bering Strait which is in the east
of the Russian, if westward from the sea area of the north of Asia-Europe Continent to
West Europe,it is Asia-Europe Road, if eastward from the Sea area of the north of the North
America Continent to West Europe ,it is North America Road.
1,Asia and Europe Road
In the time of 4,7,1878, a Finlander man called Nordensward had led on the fleet of
Sweden from Gede Fort to sail.Going along the West coast of Navia byland of Skan to the
North,eastward to go along the Sea area of the north of the Russian.After the Bering
Strait, had arrived in the Hengbin Port at the beginning of 9,1879, it reprented
the road was opened formally.
2, North America Road
In the time of 6,16,1993,a Norwegian called Armenson had led on 6 person to
take "Ayor" from Ors which is the capital of Norwey to across the north of Atlantic
,then entering into Davis Strait of the west-south of Greenland Island ,then to the
North, again to the west ,entering into Lankaste Strait westward.
It had passed the Bering Strait,that reprented the road was formally opened.