Introduction of Hotan

The ancient name of Hotan is Yutian. It is located at the very southern end of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Hotan was one of the important places on the ancient Silk Road. From early years up till now Hotan was the economical and cultural center for the exchanges between China and the western countries. It was also a famous business and tourist city. Travelling traders came and went unceasingly. Hotan was a very famous city among the four towns in the Western Region. In the early times of the Shang and Zhou Dynasties, ancient ~utian was the main place of exchanging goods and materials with the Central Plains. In the 3rd century B. C. Hotan was a famous¡±Jade Road¡± or¡±Silk Road¡± oasis which became an important pathway to other countries. From mainland China they carried silk to Central Asia, Middle East, Africa and Europe and their trade goods got exchanged here.
Through time and history, various cultures entered and influenced the area and created the dazzling ancient culture, including the Kunlun mythol-ogy. Therefore many ancient cultural ruins, relics and excavated articles can be found in Hotan district, e.g. Niya ancient city, Melikawat ancient city, Rawak temple, Yotkan ancient city, etc. These sites are all well known in the world because of their passing on of written proofs of ancient cultures and historical events. To research the Western Region¡¯ s history, many excavated articles, wood cuts, pieces of silk carpets, Buddha figures with golden orna-ments, mummies, ancient coins and many other relics can be found which are associated with the ancient civilizations of this area. Ancient Yutian was the earliest center for Buddhism in the Western Region. Strong investigations showed that more than 100 places have histor-ical and cultural ruins. One of them is under the preservation of the State and 10 of them are under the protection of the Autonomous Regional Preservation of Cultural Relics.
In early times some of the famous Buddhist monks set foot in Hotan, e. g. Fa Xian from Eastern Jin Dynasty, Song Yun from Northern Dynasty and Xuan Zang from Tang Dynasty. Also the Italian Marco Polo as well as Aurel Stein, Sven Hedin, Huang Wen Bi and other archeologists and explorers from abroad and China visited Hotan.
Hotan¡¯ s climate is dry and warm. The area is rich on products and the people are honest. Hotan is

famous for its natural resources and therefore called ¡°the country of jade and gold¡± . It¡¯ s also a storehouse for grain and cotton, the home of many delicious fruits and beautiful carpets as well as silk and other traditional local products which are famous abroad and in Chi-na. The surrounding Taklimakan is the world¡¯s second largest desert, but for its moving of sand it ranges as number one. In many places the dunes look very pretty but the local people struggle against the pressure of nature which wants to overrun the oasis. Thousands of kilometers of grape corridors en-rich the environment of Hotan. The best season for sight - seeing is between May and October every year.


Hotan warmly welcomes the guests from abroad and at home to visit and tour our area.
II Main Tourist Sites
( I)Ancient Cultural Ruins
1. Ancient City of Niya
It is located north of Niya in the middle of the Taklimakan desert, about 150kms away from Niya county. In 1962 the ancient site of Niya was desig-nated as a major cultural site under the preservation of the Autonomous Re-gion of Xinjiang. In 1996 the ancient city of Niya became a state - protected cultural relic site. It is considered that it was the capital of the Jing Jue country.
The northern, eastern and western sides of the old city are surrounded by high sand dunes, the southern side is located lower than the rest. The length of the ancient site from the north to the south is 20kms, from west to east it¡¯ s about 10kms wide. The area can be divided in at least six different parts. Some of the ancient buildings are fairly well preserved. At present the main preserved ones are the temple, some houses which are half visible and half underground, a single wooden bridge and so on. Also the ancient river, an ancient water canal and some streets are still visibe. At the ancient site of Niya there have been excavated a large number of cultural relics. Most of them are old wooden articles, iron and copper items, pottery, stone articles and woolen fabrics. Ancient copper coins of the East Hun Dynasty were discovered as well as a large number of wooden slates mostly written in the Sanskrit language. Some of the slates were also written in the old Hotan and Chinese languages. At one site there was an iron re-finery with burned articles found. In one of the graves of the Hun Dynasty a male mummy was found on which the following Chinese Characters were imprinted on the fabric: ¡°Everything turns out as you wish¡±. In October 1995 a piece of silk fabric was excavated with following words imprinted: ¡°Five stars rising from the East, is an auspicious symbol for China¡±. The first excavators to arrive, across the Karakorum from India, was the young Swedish explorer named Sven Hedin and the formidable oriental scholar Aurel Stein, an English Hungarian. Later Huang Wen Bi and other famous archeologists came to the old Niya site in the beginning of the 20th century.
2. Andir Ancient City
In ancient times the Andir ancient city was named¡±Tang Lan Cheng¡±. It is located in the middle of the desert in Niya county, west of Andir village which is about 20kms away. It is 500kms away from Hotan city. The ancient city belongs to the Hah and Jin period. It is a sister city of Niya ancient city. The ancient city is round shaped. There is an open gate in the east. The city gate is 3.4ms wide and has two door wings. The city wall is 2 - 3ms, thick. The diameter of the inner city is about 200ms. The inner city was tightly built, but most of it is destroyed now. Inside of it some cotton bolls, ears of the wheat, cotton fabrics and so on were found.
3. Kara Dung(Black Hill)
The Kara Dung ancient city is located in the middle of the northern part of the Taklimakan desert at the lower end of the Keriya river. It¡¯ s about 240kms away from Keriya county and 440kms away from Hotan city. The word Kara Dung is Uygur and means¡±Black Hill¡± . This ancient city is stretched out over 60ms and its clay and mud walls are 8ms high. The width of the foundation is 20ms and the top part of the wall 8ms. The wall is made up of a layer of tree branches and a layer of clay mixed with mud. This kind of construction is wind resistant. Up to now there have been found pottery and felt pieces, copper coins of the Han Dynasty, blue and white printed fabrics, knives, metal arrow - heads and so on. Looking at the findings, this place can be assigned to the Han, North and South Dynasties. It is also one of the ten ¡°small cities¡±which existed during the period of the Yutian country.
4. The Ruins of Dandan Oylik Buddhist City
This place is located at the joining parts of the Yorunkash and Keriya river and is about 360kms away from Hotan city. The ancient city belongs to the Han and Tang Dynasties. The area from north to south is 2kms long and lkm wide. Most of the buildings were Buddhist temples and built in a wide scale. Aurel Stein carried out an excavation in 1901. He found the famous wooden slate on which a human body with a mouse head was por-trayed. Another slate he found was about the princess who passed on silk-worm eggs to Yutian. Professor Huang Wen Bi who is a very famous arche-ologist of our country also inspected and excavated this place in 1929. He found writings in Chinese, Yutian(old Hotan language), Karoshti and Brah-man languages and also a large number of ancient coins and other relics. The ruins of the Dandan Buddhist city are world famous although they are covered by sand now. They still have a great value for archeologists, explorers and tourists.
5. Aksepil Ancient City
It is located at the northern part of the desert outside Lop county, 54kms away from Hotan city. The earliest time when the wall was built was around 2nd century B. C. The Uygur word Aksepil means¡±white city wall¡± The city wall¡¯ s diameter is 7 - 8 kms. Now the greater part of the wall is covered by drifted sand or damaged by wind so that only 93.6 ms are left. The wall is 5 ms high, the foundation is 2.5 ms wide and the top of the wall is 1.5 ms wide. There are rifle - pits on top of the wall. Among the exca-vated relics there are ancient coins, Pottery, small golden Buddha Statues, etc. Also some writings in Karoshti and Brahman languages were found. Aurel Stein inspected and excavated this place twice, once in 1901 and then again in 1906. He carried off large numbers of relics. Huang Wen Bi, an archeology professor, found a coin of a Yutian horse in 1929. This is the only horse coin existing in our country. The Aksepil ancient city is under the Autonomous Regional preservation of Cultural Relics since 1957.
6. The Ruins of Rawak Temple
It is located in the desert north - west of Jiya township, Lop county and is 70 kms away from Hotan city. It is the only temple which has a gandara style(similar form as an Indian temple) which is quite well preserved in Hotan district. It prospered and declined from the 2nd to the 10th centu-ry. The Uygur word¡±rawak¡± means ¡°pavilion¡± . The Buddhist temple was in the center of a group of Buddhist pagodas. The temple was surrounded by a courtyard wall. Outside and inside the courtyard there were large numbers of frescos, clay sculptures and Buddha figures scattered around. Also some wall paintings were found. On them some stories about Buddhism were painted such as a map of Samsara. The clay sculptures and Buddha figures were at-tached on two sides of the wall. Inside and outside of the temple a large number of red and grey pottery pieces and some broken pieces of Buddha figures were scattered around. Aurel Stein inspected and excavated this place twice, once in 1901 and then again in 1906. He carried off large numbers of precious relics. Professor Huang Wen Bi also inspected the place in 1929 and found Buddha figures, frescos and also Wu Zhu coins, Buddhist pearls and different kinds of pottery pieces, etc. The Rawak temple is under the preser-vation of the Autonomous Regional Cultural Relics Unit.
7. Imam Asim Ancient Tomb
It is situated at the northern part of Lop county, 10 kms outside the Jiya township. From Hotan city it¡¯ s 23 kms away. The tomb is in a place where farming land and the desert meet. It is said that the tomb belongs to a Muslim missionary who was also a military officer in the 1 lth century. Around the grave is a wooden fence, followed by a wall plastered with clay and mud. Nearby is also a mosque for Muslims which is quite impressive. This tomb¡¯ s influence is very strong among the local Muslisms. Every May more than I0, 000 people visit this tomb local to worship. Many barren Uygur women go there to pray for a baby. Nearby are also two big¡±toghrak¡¯ (a kind of poplar tree) under which ladies are pinning needles into the tree trunk. If some liquid or resin comes out it means that their prayers have been an-swered. This is one of the worship places of Islam believers.¡¯ Tourists also like this place because it¡¯ s good for sight- seeing and enjoying the boundless desert scenery.
8. Melikawat Ancient City Ruins
It is located at the west bank of Yorungkash river and southeast of Hotan city which is 27 kms away. It belongs to the Hah and Tang Dynas-ties. It has been under the Autonomous Regional Preservation of Cultural Relics since 1957. The ruins are from north to south 10 kms long and from west to east 2 kms wide. The west part of the ruins is surrounded by small dunes. The Kunlun mountains loom in the south and peak out through the clouds. The Yorungkash river in the east winds its way through the desert. Not far away in the north you can see a village with houses surrounded by green trees. Inside the ruins there are leftovers of houses and ancient tombs. On the western side behind a sand hill there exist 3 mystical caves. So far some bronze Buddha figures, jade articles, clay Buddha sculptures, ancient Uygur styled wall decorations, fresco pieces, potteries and a large amount, of old coins have been unearthed. Among the coins some are ¡°Wu Zhu¡±coins which belong to the Hah Dynasty and others are ¡°Jian Lun¡± coins belonging to the Wei, Jin, Northern and Southern Dynasties. Some others are called ¡°Kai Yun Tong Bao¡± belonging to the Tang Dynasty.
Aurel Stein inspected and excavated this place twice, once in 1901 and then again in 1906. He collected a large number of articles belonging to the Han and Tang Dynasties. Chinese professor Huang Wen Bi has also inspected this place twice, once in 1929 and then again in 1957. He considered that it was the capital of the Yutian country. Some other scholars say that Me-likawat¡¯s ruins were once temples.
9. Yotkan Ancient City Ruins
They are located at Baghqi township in Yotkan village which today is called Alnama. They are 13 kms away from Hotan city. These Buddhist ruins belong to the Hah and Song Dynasties. It is under the Autonomous Regional Preservation of cultural Relics. The Yotkan city ruins cover an area of 10 square kms. Most of the cultural relics are about 3 - 6ms in the ground. Among the excavated cuhrual relics mostly jade articles, golden Buddha figures and a large amount of old coins have been unearthed which were used during a long period of time. The earliest coins called ¡°Wu Zhu¡± belong to the Han dynasty. The coin of the Wang Mang¡¯ s period bave on two sides of the coins letters imprinted in Han and Sanskrit languages. The latest dated coins belong to the Karahan Dynasty while Mohammad Arslanhan ruled. The Chinese Cultural Relics Department excavated a golden duck during their investigations. They also found one coin called ¡°Qian Yuan Huang Bao¡± and collected some pottery pieces with human patterns and animals on it. ¡® Fa Xian from the Eastern Jin Dynasty and Xuan Zang from the Tang Dynasty set their feet on this place. Swen Hedin excavated some relics from Yotkan in 1896. Aurel Stein had twice excavated relics from here, once in October 1901 and then again in April 1906. Professor Huang Wen Bi in-spected the place in 1929 and recorded his roundings.
10. Kokmarim Rock Cave (Zanmu Miao)
The Kokmarim Rock Cave is situated near Layka township, about 34 kms southwest of Hotan city at the east bank of the Karakash river. The cave is located half way up the mountains, about 80 ms above the river bank. The word Kokmarim is Persian and means ¡°snake mountain¡± . It is a two -floor cave which is connected by stairs and a ladder. The cave is at the foot of a hill and beside a river. It has a beautiful scenery and below the cave the roaring Karakash river is flowing. On the opposite side of the river there are green fields, trees and some villages. The river from above looks like the shape of a dragon, its source springs from the Kunlun mountains. Walking to the rock cave and then standing on top of the cave looking into the distance you can enjoy a beautiful scenery of mountains and the river. According to historical records the rock cave was found by the great master Fa Xian when passing through in 401 B.C. Therefore the cave was called ¡°Zanmu Miao¡±. in his book ¡°The note of Buddha countries¡¯he men-tions that there are three caves at the western part of the rock cave. As they are very deep you cannot see the end of the cave. Historical facts indicate that these three caves were used as a storage place for army officers.
11. Hasa and Hasha Ancient Castles
The Hasa and Hasha ancient castles can also be called stone- wall castles. They are located in the south of Qira county. Passing through the Qakar village which is 180 kms away from Hotan city, it¡¯ s about 12 kms outside Qakar towards the west. The main castle is on top of the Hasha mountain bordering the Hasha village which is only 1 km away. On one side is a semi -desert and on the other three sides are mountains. The walls in the east and west weren¡¯ t built because there is a river protecting it. The stone walls are made from stone pieces and clay. In the llth century there was a 24- year war between the Yutian country and the Karahan imperial kingdom. The Yutian people believed in Buddhism and the Karahan in Is-lam. This religious war got won by the Karahan imperial kingdom and therefore fighting stopped. Two of the Yutian army commanders, one was named Qohtirishit and the other Nohtirishit, led the army back to Qakar and built these two castles. They hoped that one day they would stride across the Kunlun mountains and move into Tibet. Because of pursuing troops which approached quickly as well as bad weather and freezing temperatures all of them died in a battle in the winter of 1006. The castles got left behind and remind us of a tragic history.
12. Halalbagh Buddhist Temple
It is located at Tusalla township in the Halalbagh village about 11 kms south of Hotan city. It covers an area of 1 square km. The temple was built more than 20 ms high on clay soil. It is well preserved. Nearby many pottery pieces were found and also a large number of human bones which were piled up. Among the excavated articles are copper coins, pottery pieces and pearls, etc. It is said that the temple was built by the king of the Yutian country to commemorate the princess of the Eastern Country who carried some silkworm eggs to the Yutian country.
13. Sanju Rock Painting
The Sanju Rock Painting is located on a rock in Urqi village which is 180 kms away from Hotan city. Urqi belongs to the Sanju township in Guma county. The painting is on the opposite side of a river. The length of the painting is 3.3 meters and its height is 1.3 meters. On the painting there are figure paintings, animals and other paintings whose meanings are not known yet. It is assumed that the ancient people spent their life with hunting. This place stands under the preservation of historical relics by the Autonomous Region since 1962.
14. Hotan Museum
The museum is located in the center of Hotan city. In the exhibition room there are on display many kinds of cultural relics unearthed from vari-ous Hotan areas. These cultural items reflect the long history of Hotan for more than 2, 000 years. They are proof of the areas¡¯ splendid culture, eco-nomical conditions, political situations, life and customs. These relics reflect the ¡°Silk Road¡± which effected the historical and cultural exchanges as well as trade between China, its nationalities and Central Asia and Western countries.

15,people ¡°tears coming out of crying eyes¡±. It is located at the edge of the Kizil village which belongs to the Qakar township, Qira county. It¡¯ s 20 kms away from Qakar. The cool spring lays in the middle of the boundless semi-desert. The water flows unceasingly throughout the whole year. Traditions tell that the water of the cool spring was the tears of a holy man called ¡°Imam Mahdi Ahir Zaman¡±. The red mountain slope behind it means the red color of the holy man¡¯ s face. If people wash their face in the spring water, their eyes become bright and their face pretty. Under the mountain slope there are two poplar trees leaning on each other. They are so tall that they almost reach the clouds. The cool spring water irrigates the surrounding land so that flowers and grass can grow. All the visitors appreciate and like to enter this won-derful place.
2. Natural Scenery along the River
In Uygur it is called ¡°Darya boyi¡± which means ¡°along the river¡±. This place is located in the middle of the Taklimakan desert, about 220 kms north of Keriya county where there is also a village with the same name. From Hotan it¡¯ s about 420 kms. If you leave Keriya county and go along the Keriya river to the north, you will enter a vast sea of sanddunes which rise and fall swiftly. The view from the desert is amazing and takes your breath. After 100 kms you can see some oasis and a whole belt of poplar trees which are called ¡°toghrak¡±. They spread out over a vast area. The poplar belt is more than 200 kms long from the south to the north and several kilometers wide. In fall the leaves turn into a beautiful red and yellow and that will surely stir up your interest. On the way you can also see some wild animals.
3. The King of Fig Trees anti the Orchard with Hundreds of Fruits
The orchard is located at the southern part of Hotan city, in the Layka township at the government garden. It¡¯ s 22 kms away from Hotan city. The fig tree has a history of over 400 years. The age of this old fig tree can¡¯ t obvi-ously be seen. It still has large branches, many leaves and is as rich on fruits as ever. Every year new branches are growing. It covers an area of one alu (666 square meters). Such an old fig tree is not only seldom in Xinjiang but in all of China. Therefore this tree is called¡±the king of fig trees¡±. There is a fine legend about the king of fig trees. It is said that there was once a king of Yutian country. He had no son even at the age of 70. The king was afraid to be without any male offspring. The people were afraid that the king¡¯s sovereignty would stop. So the peoply went and explored how they could find an elixir to extent the life of the king, but they couldn¡¯ t find anything. One day a mother of a Western country king was passing through the area. She met a farmer who was walking around looking for some-thing. She asked him for the reason and was told that he was looking for an elixir to extend the life of the king. She was deeply moved and gave him a branch of a tree. The farmer put the branch into the ground in front of his house. On the second day he saw that the branch got many leaves and other branches. It was also bearing fruits without having blossomed. When the king ate of these figs, sure enough it was effective and he lived to be 100 years old.
In the orchard of the King of Fig tress there is a Uygur styled reception center which makes up 300 square meters. Tourists can taste many delicious dishes and fruits, stay over night, enjoy amusement and other activities.
4. The King of Walnut Trees
This walnut tree with its 500 years of age is also called ¡°the god of longevity of the trees¡± . It is situated in Baghqi township, 7 kms south of Hotan city. The king of the walnut trees has a long trunk, its height is about 20 ms and the crown of the tree is very large. It covers an area of about one mu(666 square meters) . The trunk is so big that it takes five people stretched out holding hands to go around it. Every year the walnut tree still produces 5 - 6, 000 thin - shelled walnuts of high quality. Hotan¡¯ s walnuts ripe early and are big, the shell is thin and cracks easily. Their nutritive value is very high. They are not only one of the best nuts but also rich in protein.
5. Yorungkash River(White Jade River)
The Yorungkash river lies in the east 4 kms away from Rotan city. This river is one of the two branches of the river which makes up the Hotan river. Its source is southeast of the Muz Tagh (ice mountain) under the snow - capped peaks of the northern Tibetan highlands. Glacier water forms the fiver as the snow on top of the mountains melts. The length of the Yorungkash river is 513 kms. Every year from June to September it¡¯s the flood season and the fiver is full. Every year from October to next May, the water level is low. During this time it¡¯ s the good season for people to look for and even-tually pick up jade. In history the Yorungkash river was also called the ¡°Jade river¡± or ¡°White Jade River¡± . The White jade and especially the world¡¯ s most famous sheep- fat colored jade with its highest grade of quality have been found here for centuries.
6. Karakash River
The Karakash river is called in Chinese the ¡°Black Jade River¡± . In Uygur the word means ¡°black river banks¡±. It is one of the two arms of rivers which make up the Hotan river. Its source is in the Kunlun mountains near the Karakorum Peak. The total length of the river is 808 kms. Every year from June to September it is the flood season. From October to next May it is the dry season. The Karakash river is famous for the black jade known by many customers at home and abroad.
7. Grape corridors
These grape corridors are located in the countryside of Hotan coun-
ty. Hardworking Uygur farmers economize their land and plant along roads
and paths corridors of grapes as a protection against sandstorms. They put up
wooden frames which cover the roads like a tunnel. The corridors length is
more than 1, 480 kms. This is the same length as the road which goes from
Beijing to Qangsha in Hunan Province. Such an occurrence is hardly found in
the world. Premier minister Jiang Zemin came to Hotan in August 1990 to
oversee the work of the government. After be got driven along the grape
corridors he was totally surprised and with admiration he wrote the following
four characters: ¡°A world sensational wonder¡±,
8. Yengi Erik Desert and Reservoir
This word means in Uygur¡±new water channel¡±, It is located 22 kms in the northwest of Hotan city. This place is located in the very far southern corner of the Taklimakan desert which is the second largest desert in the world but ranges as number one with its moving of sand. The sanddunes are very majestic and they go as far as the eye reaches. The scenery is quite breath - taking and magnificent. Just behind the sanddunes in the south there is the Yengi Erik reservoir. Some farmers are also fishing in the reser-voir. Tourists can swim in the warm water or also take a ride in a rowing boat. Nearby there are some neat cultivated rice fields and a forestry belt, Towards the northwest the oasis and desert meet and this makes beau-tiful scenery. Experiencing a sunrise or sunset is a special attraction nobody should miss.
( IB ) Folk Customs
1. Keriya¡¯s Women Cap
These ladies of Uygur nationality who have settled down in Keriya since a long time wear a special head cover. Mainly middle - aged and older Uygur ladies wear on their head this kind of cap which is unknown in other places of the world. It has the form of a tea - bowl and its diameter is 10 cms. It is only used as a decoration and makes ladies more beautiful. The Uygur people call this cap¡±talpak¡±. This cap is special that it has become famous all over the world . A silk fabric covers the top of the cap. Underneath they use lamb skin. The handicraft is quite particular. The ladies use a needle to fix the cap on the right side of their white scarf. Looking at the cap from close by, it looks like a cap, but looking from further away it appears to be a bowl or a flower bud. Its form has its own speciality. This small Keriya (cap for women is so special that it has been entered into the Guiness Record Book as the world¡¯s smallest women head cover.
2. Hotan Bazaar
Hotan¡¯ s great bazaar is located in the northeastern corner of Hotan city. it is one of the biggest market in southern Xinjiang. It has 14 special market areas which get flooded by hundreds and thousands of people every Sunday. Often there are more than 100, 000 people shopping on a Sunday in the bazaar. All kinds of special local Hotan products can be bought. In the bazaar beautiful styled dresses can be seen or bought and many sweet fruits and delicious dishes as well as snacks can be tasted.
Minority Products and Souvenirs
1. Atlas Cloth
The word Atlas means in Uygur language ¡°tie - dyed silk fabric¡±. Atlas is one of the traditional products of Hotan. It has a history of over 2, 000 years. The texture of Atlas is soft, light and graceful. The Atlas silk has bright colors, the patterns are rich, changeable and have strong local Hotan characteristics. In Jiya township there is a traditional Atlas producing family which retained the ancient technics of silk dying, silk spinning and weaving on wooden looms. Local Uygur girls and ladies like the Atlas silk cloth very much. At the same time many tourists like to buy it as a souvenir.
2. Mulberry Paper
The mulberry paper is a traditional handicraft of the Uygur nationality. At present there is only one family in Hotan district who still produces such paper. The family lives in Hotan city. The art of this handicraft has a history of more than 2, 000 years. According to historical facts the technic of the paper making handicraft was here more than 100 years earlier than Ceylon¡¯s invention of the paper. The raw material for the paper consists of the bark of nmlberry branches. For making paper pulp, they use the ashes of tamarisk and ¡°toghrak¡± a kind of a Chinese poplar and boil it together with the bark. The whole work is done by hand. Tourists can obtain such paper as sou-venirs.
3. Hotan Carpet
The history of Hotan carpets is as long as 2, 000 years old. The Hotan carpets belong to the oriental style of handicraft and are soht to over ten countries in Europe, America, Australia and also in Asia. The main reason why the Hotan carpets are famous in domestic and foreign market is because of the raw lnateria) used and the precise weaving. The yarn which gets spun by locals comes from the wool of Hotan sheep which has a perfect thickness, is strong and elastic as well. It is shiny and feels soft when touching and these carpets last many years.
In 1992 the Hotan carpet factm¡¯y has woven a carpet for the Great Hall of the People in Beijing called ¡°Tianshan Song¡± (praise the Tianshan moun-tains). This large carpet is 12.5 ms long and 4.5 ms wide. This is one of the largest fine art carpets of the world at present. Therefore it became an un art treasure. In June 1997 the government of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region has given a large sized tapestry souvenir named ¡°Tianshan Huan Ge¡± (happy song of Tianshan mountain) commemorating the founding of HongKong¡¯ s special administrative area. It was also woven in Hotan by the ¡°Foreign Trade Carpet Factory¡±.
4. Hotan Jade
Hotan is the main jade production center of the world for 2, 000 years.
The Hotan white jade is in big demand among the jade products of the world. Since early years the Hotan jade has been transported to mainland China and Eurasian markets in a steady stream. It has become a rare treasure for the nobles in authority. All the seven counties and one city of Hotan district can naturally produce jade, but it is mostly produced from the Yorungkash and Karakash rivers. Every year about 200- 300kgs white jade gets pro-duced. There are too many rare carved treasures from the Hotan jade to mention them individually. The 5,300kgs heavy jade carving called ¡°Da Yu Zhi Shui Yu Shah¡± which is exhibited in the Beijing Palace Museum is made of Hotan jade. The 3, 473kgs heavy jade carving called ¡°Da Qian Fo Guo Tu¡± is also a carving from Hotan jade. In 1992 the Hotan Jade Carving Factory carved a big jade screen called ¡°Shou Gu Wu¡± (tambourine dance) for the Beijing People¡¯ s Hall. This gave rise to a big sensation throughout the world.
Modern medicine research found out that there are some special trace elements in the Hotan jade. This has a good effect on the human body. If worn for a long 6me it will bring good health, long life and a controlling effect for hypertension, old age as well as venereal diseases.
IV Longevity of Old People in Hotan
Xinjiang is one of the four big longevity areas in the world as pub-lished by the International Medical Science Institute in 1985. In Xinjiang, Hotan has a high concentrated area of longevity people. Through the results of the 4th census taken in China, it became clear that there are more than 140 old people in Hotan district. This situation on longevity has led the world to attach great importance to nutrition.
In 1995 the Japanese West TV Station came especially to Hotan to make a TV film about the longevity people. The Hotan district is dry and has almost no rain and big sandstorms blown by the wind. Why do Hotan people have longevity? It should be researched and analyzed on the sociological, environmental, psychological and nutritious aspect. Hotan is at the edge of the desert, but its environment in the oasis is good. Even though there is little rain and snowfall hut the massive snow storage melting from the Kunlun Mountains irrigates the farmland. The irri gation channels all across the fields provide sufficient water for the plants. The Hotan people have a good traditions that they plant a lot of trees. Trees break the wind coming from the desert and this is beneficial for the health of the people. The water is the life of the oasis and therefore also the life of the people all over our area. The drinking water for the Hotan people is the melted snow water and the quality of the water is excellent. Testing showed that in the drinking water there is magnesium, mangance, iron, zinc and other trace elements which are healthy to you. Among them mangance is an anti - age element which gives longevity. These old people are basically living in the countryside. The one thing they have in common is that they work hard every day. Moreover, they have the habit of going barefeet. Medicine proves that there are many acupoints on the sole of the foot. Daily massage is very healthy. Going barefeet is actually a daily massage. All the longevity people have another common good habit: They sleep early at night and get up early in the morning. It is favorable for health when old people live a regular life and be moderate in eating as well as drinking. Every day for breakfast they eat mainly nang(a kind of flat toast bread), herbal tea and rose -petal jam. Usually they eat fresh vegetables, dried and fresh fruits along with grain, flour and rice. They don¡¯ t smoke at all. Having a bright and cheerful dis-position is also a common speciality among the longevity people. They are usually happy, gentle, keeping a good relationship with their neighbors, having close relationships among the family members and also have a happy marriage history. Husband and wife respect each other. This kind of open mind is beneficial ilar health.
Hotan is a traditional district for Uygur medicine and treatment. Uygur medicine has done deep research on keeping good health. The Uy gur traditional medicine has a regulating effect on the human body. This is also one of the reasons why the Hotau people are so healthy and have longevity. Tile longevity people are a walking dictionary for the history and life of this area. They are also the witness of history because time brings great changes to Hotan.
V Hotels
1. Hotan Hotel
It is a two -star hotel and serves mainly the fbreign guests. It started business in 1988 and is located at the Bostan South Road in Hotan city. it has 66 rooms, 138 beds, a big and a small banquet hall, a bar, a singing and dancing hall, a barber shop anti a tourist shop with special products. They guarantee high quality service to the guest from home and abroad. They can also supply for the guests performances with nationality singing and dancing. At the same time they can hohl meetings for 300 people and provide fuod for 400 people. It is the best place for tourist having a rest.
2. Hotan Guesthouse(Merhaba Guesthouse)
The Hotan Guesthouse is allowed to serve foreign guests, issued by the Autonomous Regional Tourist Bureau. It is located in the North Tanay Road in Hotan city. it has 210 beds and the rooms are equipped with high and middle class standard. It has two restaurants, one for Chinese and one for Muslims. They can supply special local dishes to the guests. In 1995 the Hotan district has invested 100, 000 yuan for renovating the hotel. With the new appearance it warmly welcomes guests from home and abroad.
VI Tourist Shopping
There are five tourist shopping places in Hotan district. They can supply all kinds of jade articles, silk cloth and carpets and other handicraft articles and tourist souvenirs for the guests from home and abroad. VII Travel Service)
Hotan International Travel Service(CITS) was founded in 1992. It is the International Travel Service ratified by the State Tourist Bureau. It is located on the Tambagh Road No. 23 in Hotan city. At present they can supply English, Japanese, Russian, Chinese and Uygur language guide services. According to the demands of the guests they can organize desert exploration trips, Silk Road tour explorations, scientific desert investigations, visits to many historical sites in the desert as well as cultural relics and folk customs research tours. They will supply guides for the whole journey and also supply the necessities for picnic and camping. Ticket ordering for planes and buses for the guests will be done. They wel-come visitors and see them off at the airport or bus station, make reservations at hotels, etc.
According to the ¡°Travel Service Management Regulations¡± and related stipulations of the State Tourist Bureau, they reorganized and changed the name of the Hotan Travel Service in the beginning of 1998. Its full name is now ¡°China Xinjiang Hotan International Travel Service¡± . Under the CITS they set up the foreign liaison department, professional, finance, plan and dispatch department and the tourist motorcade.
VIII Transportation
Hotan¡¯ s airport is quite big and located in the southern part of Hotan city, 10 kms from the city center. All kinds of large civil aircraft can land there. Every week on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and Sunday an airplane is flying to Urumqi. During the peak season a medium- sized airplane will leave every day directly to Urumqi. From Urumqi customers can fly to every big city all over the country and also all over the world. Daily there are also many kinds of big sleeping - berth buses from Hotan to Urumqi.
Villi Special Touring Arrangements
(l) Desert Exploration
1. Silk Road along the South Route - 7 days tour
Hotan - Niya - Qarqan - Qarkilik - Mangai - Dun Huang
Program: Along the ancient trade caravan road we can visit the special animals in the Ahun Tagh Natural Protected Area. The whole journey is about 1,870kms long.
2. Silk Road - 5 days tour
Hotan - Niya - Qarqan - Qarkilik - Lop Nur - Korla
Program: We can enjoy the amorous feelings in the desert along the Silk Road and also visit some families living in the desert, see oasises and new cities growing in the desert. The whole journey is about 1,540 kms long.
( H)Scientific Investigations
1. Across the Taklimakan Desert - 5 - 6 days tour Hotan -Koshlash (place where Yorungkash and Karakash rivers join) -
Maza Tagh(red and white mountain) -Alar- Aksu
Program: investigate valleys along the Hotan river with artificial, natural and historical landscapes and its geographical conditions , etc. The whole journey is about 640 kms long. This tour runs all year except in July, August and September.
2. Niya Ancient City ruins(Jingjue Guo ancient sites)
Hotan - Lop - Qira - Keriya - Niya
The whole journey is about 480 kms long. We will camp and have picnic along the way. This investigation program tour must beforehand be admitted to the high level authorities for examination and approval.
3. Keriya Local Customs Survey - 4 days tour
Hotan - Keriya - Dariya boyi(Da He Yah)
Program: We will enjoy the Uygur people¡¯ s culture and research the customs handed down from past generations to the Keriya people. We can also see the rugged and beautiful natural scenery of the Keriya river. The whole journey is about 420 kms.
X Tourist Amusement
The¡±New Jade Art Troupe¡± who is famous at home and abroad will be available for service of high quality and great nationality songs and dances. They also serve with special local folk songs and dancing styles, e.g.
¡°Mashrap¡±and songs played with dutar and other national instruments, etc.
Xl Tourist Supervision System
This supervision organization who guarantees service quality to tourists has been established in July 1995.
Their address is : Hotan Tourist Administration Office
Tambagh Road 23,
Hotan 848000, Xinjiang
P. R. of China